La Classe 1a ha realizzato un lavoro notevole all’interno del progetto: “La ricchezza del nostro territorio” con l’insegnante di scienze, Prof.ssa Martina Bodner, in italiano e in tedesco.

La Classe 1a ha realizzato un lavoro notevole all’interno del progetto: “La ricchezza del nostro territorio” con l’insegnante di scienze, Prof.ssa Martina Bodner.

ENERGIA SOLARE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

CHE COSA E’ L’ENERGIA SOLARE:

L’energia solare è quella fonte rinnovabile che trasforma la luce del sole in energia, attraverso sistemi tecnologici come, ad esempio, le cellule fotovoltaiche. A differenza di altre forme di energia come il carbone, l’energia solare non produce inquinamento e non ha nessun impatto negativo sull’ambiente.

L’energia solare può essere trasformata in energia elettrica mediane due tipi di centrale, che utilizzano rispettivamente la conversione termodinamica e la conversione fotovoltaica.

Una centrale termodinamica si trova in Germania e la captazione dell’energia solare avviene mediante un sistema di grandi specchi orientabili, che riflettono i raggi solari concentrandoli su una caldaia posta alla sommità di una torre. Nella caldaia, per effetto del calore solare si genera vapore che viene inviato alla turbina. Nella centrale fotovoltaica la conversione viene realizzata mediante le celle fotovoltaiche, che sono costruite da particolari semiconduttori, come il silicio, i quali hanno la proprietà di generare corrente elettrica quando vengono colpiti dalla radiazione solare.

COME VIENE USATA IN ITALIA:                             

L’attuale situazione del mercato fotovoltaico in Italia è caratterizzata dalla presenza di più di 520.000 impianti sparsi su tutto il territorio nazionale, con una particolare concentrazione sulle regioni di Lombardia, Emilia Romagna e Triveneto.

I PANNELLI:

Il pannello solare serve a catturare l’energia che giunge dal Sole sulla Terra e ad utilizzarla per produrre acqua calda ad una temperatura che può raggiungere anche 60 -70°C.

L’insolazione dipende dalla nuvolosità e dall’orientamento del pannello rispetto al sole e un pannello riceve più energia solare quando è orientato direttamente verso il sole. Si potrebbe pensare alla possibilità di dotare i pannelli di sistemi ad inseguimento della traiettoria apparente del sole ma, sebbene sia tecnicamente possibile, non è una soluzione valida dal punto di vista economico.

Ci sono anche dei fattori negativi:

Uno dei fattori negativi è la discontinuità dovuta all’alternanza del giorno e della notte, al ciclo delle stagioni e alla variazione delle condizioni meteorologiche. Un altro è la bassa densità energetica che rende necessario l’impiego di ampie superfici di raccolta con elevati costi di impianto.

ENERGIA SOLARE IN TRENTINO:

Anche TrentinoSolare ha scelto di schierarsi con l’ambiente proponendosi sul mercato dell’energia con la tecnologia degli impianti fotovoltaici, che costituiscono attualmente l’unico strumento di sfruttamento dell’energia solare.

ENERGIA SOLARE NEL MAROCCO

Il re del Marocco, Mohamed IV, inaugura oggi il più grande impianto solare termodinamico del mondo. La mega centrale Noor 1 è stata costruita nel deserto del Sahara, vicino alla città di Ouarzazate. Secondo i dati del Ministero dell’Energia marocchino, il costo del progetto sarebbe di 652 milioni di dollari, e la capacità dell’impianto 160 megawatt.

SOLARENERGIE

 

WAS IST SONNENENERGIE?

Solarenergie, auch Sonnenenergie genannt, bezeichnet die Energie der Sonnenstrahlung, die vom Menschen technisch genutzt werden kann. Die Nutzung kann dabei in Form von elektrischem Strom, als Wärme, aber auch als chemische Energie erfolgen. Die Solarenergie kann in elektrische Energie oder photovoltaische Energie umgewandelt werden. Die Sonne gibt, seitdem die Solarenergie überhaupt messbar ist, eine beinahe konstante Strahlungsenergie ab. Schwankungen sind selbst aus längst vergangenen Zeiten nicht bekannt. Somit stellt die Solarenergie eine schier grenzenlose Energiequelle dar, die, anders als fossile Energieträger, kaum erschöpfbar ist. Die Sonne, bzw. die Solarenergie, ist demnach die größte, verfügbare Energiequelle der Menschheit und mit moderner Solartechnik in verschiedenen Energiebereichen für den Menschen nutzbar.

Eine thermodynamische Zentrale befindet sich in Deutschland: die Sonnenenergie wird durch riesige Spiegel, welche die Sonnenstrahlen reflektieren, produziert. In der Fotovoltaik Zentrale wird die Sonnenenergie mit Photovoltaikanlagen produziert.

WIE WIRD SIE IN ITALIEN GENUTZT?

In Italien gib es rund 520000 Solaranlagen welche auf dem ganzen Territorium verteilt sind. Sehr viele davon befinden sich in den Regionen der Lombardei, Emilia Romagna und Triveneto.

DIE PHOTOVOLTAIKANLAGEN

Eine Anlage benutzt man um die Energie der Sonne auf der Erde aufzunehmen. Außerdem wird sie auch benutzt um heises Wasser, das bis zu 60°-70° Celsius erreichen kann, herzustellen. Die Anzahl der sonnigen Tagen haegt von der §Wolkenmenge und der Orientierung der Photovoltaikanlage ab. Eine Photovoltaikanlage kann mehr Energie aufnehmen, wenn sie zur Sonne gedreht ist.

ES gibt auch negative Aspekte: einer der negativen Aspekte ist die Diskontinuität, welche vom Wechsel zwischen Tag und Nacht, der Jahreszeiten und dem Wetter abhängt. Ein nächster negativer Aspekt ist die geringe Energiedichte, Welche die Verwendung von großen Sammelflaechen mit hohen Anlagekosten notwendig macht.

SOLARENERGIE IM TRENTINO:

Auch TrentinoSolare hat sich dazu entschlossen mit der Umwelt zusammenzuarbeiten. Sie haben auf dem Markt vorgeschlagen die Energie mit der Technologie der Photovoltaikanlagen zu produzieren.

SONNENENERGIE IN MAROKKO

König Mohammed IV. lies in Marokko eine hochmoderne Solarenergiefabrik entstehen mit technologischer und finanzieller Unterstützung aus Deutschland. Von den rund 2,2 Milliarden Euro, die das Kraftwerk kostet, übernimmt ein internationales Geberkonsortium, zu dem auch Deutschland gehört, rund 850 Millionen Euro. Es ist so groß wie 650 Fußballfelder und soll noch grösser werden, denn auf Noor I folgen noch Noor II, Noor III und Noor IV. Das komplette Solarkraftwerk erzeugt dann eine elektrische Leistung von insgesamt 580 Megawatt, das ist etwa so viel wie ein Block eines mittleren Kohlekraftwerks liefert. Die Solarenergiefabrik wird sich auf einer Fläche von über 3000 Hektar erstrecken, was der Größe von 4200 Fußballfeldern entspricht.

Die Windenergie [if gte vml 1]>

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Die Energie des Windes, wird schon seit einigen Jahrhunderten vom Menschen verwendet. Frueher wurde diese nur zum betaetigen der Windmuehlen angewendet, hingegen heute, erlaubt die Windenergie, dank den windbetriebenen Turbinen Energie zu produzieren. Einer der Faktoren, der für die Installation einer Windkraftanlage notwendig ist, ist das Vorhandensein einer stetigen Windgeschwindigkeit, die aber im Suedtiroler Gebiet schwer zu finden ist.

Bereits in der Antike diente der Wind zum Segeln und die Fluegel der Mühlen zum Mahlen von Getreide,  zum Oliven auspressen oder Wasser zu pumpen. Nur seit wenigen Jahrzehnten wird Windkraft auch fuer die Stromerzeugung genutzt.

Die Windkraft verwendet die kinetische Kraft des Windes. Die wichtigsten Vorteile dieser Energiequelle sind die  “Sauberkeit” und Erneuerbarkeit der Energie, die verwendet und verwandelt wird. Einer der Nachteile hingegen ist, die visuelle Wirkung auf die Landschaft und in einigen Faellen auch der verursachte Laerm.

Strom produziert man durch die Nutzbarmachung der kinetischen Energie des Windes, die die Drehung der Blätter einer Windmuehle verursacht; Diese sind wiederum mit einem Generator verbunden, der die mechanische Energie in elektrische Energie umwandelt. Diese modernen Windmühlen nennt man aero-Generatoren.

Die Windkraft und Windenergieerzeugung stieg in den letzen Jahren enorm an. Bisher befinden sich 85 % der installierten Leistung der Welt in zehn Ländern: China, USA, Deutschland, Spanien, Italien, Frankreich, Großbritannien, Indien, Kanada und Dänemark.

Seit Beginn der Nutzung des Windes als Stromquelle, waren Deutschland, Spanien und die USA die  Länder die am meisten investiert und produziert haben. Deutschland war schon immer das erste in der Rangliste, wurde aber im Jahr 2011 von China und den USA überholt.

In der Tat ist China in den letzten fuenf Jahren das wichtigsten Land der Windenergie-Branche geworden.

Im Jahr 2011 belegte Italien Nummer sieben in der Weltrangliste der Windkraft, da die Bedingungen für die Windenergieproduktion in diesem Land nicht die günstigsten sind. Der Grund dafuer ist die schmale und längliche Konformation des Gebietes, sowie das Vorhandensein der Alpen, die Hindernisse für den Wind darstellen.

Trotzdem gibt es lokal viele günstige Situationen fuer die Windenergie, wie zum Beispiel entlang der Apenninen Ridge Adria Küste und den Inseln.

Am Ende des Jahres 2012 waren in Italien 1. 054 Turbinen installiert. Wegen physiographischen Eigenschaften unseres Territoriums und das resultierende System der Winde, ist die Verteilung derselben in den verschiedenen Regionen ungleich. Die größte Anzahl von Installationen liegt in Apulien gefolt von Kampanien und  Basilikata.

Wir sehen dadurch dass  die südlichen und zentralen Regionen Italiens am produktivsten sind.

In Suedtirol hat stattdessen Windkraft aufgrund der niedrigen Durchschnittsgeschwindigkeit vom Wind und schwierigen Konformationen des Territoriums eine untergeordnete Rolle.

Neben der Windmuehlen von der Muta von Mals un Sand in Taufers, wurden mehrere Windmuehlen von kleinerer Dimension realisiert.

Windenergie wird durch zwei Arten von Windkraftanlagen produziert: vertikale und horizontale.

Die Turbinen die man in der Regel in den modernen Windparks sieht, bestehen aus einem Turm und einer Dreiblatt-horizontaler Achse, von denen haben sie ihren Namen (horizontale Windkraftanlagen).

Die vertikalen Windkraftanlagen sind seltener und weniger effizient als die horizontalen Windkraftanlagen, jedoch sind sie in der Lage den Wind in alle Richtungen ,und auch bei schwachenWinden, schnell kanalisieren zu können. Sie bestehen aus einem zentralen Turm, umdessen die vertikalen Klingen angeordnet sind.

An der Spitze des Turms befinden sich der Rotor,der elektrische Generator und ein Motor, der von einem von einem Computer gesteuert wird, derdafür sorgt, dass sich die Blaetter der Windmuehlen immer drehen, damit sie den Wind soviel wie moeglich nutzen koennen.

Die Energie wird durch die Rotation der Blaetter der Windmuehle erzeugt, durch die Drehung,, dreht sich eine Antriebswelle, die den elektrischenGenerator antreibt.

Das Vorhandensein einer Vielzahl von Windenergieanlagen könnte unsicher scheinen. In der Tat können die modernstenWindmuehlen sich in der Nähevon Wohngebieten befinden, da ihre Sicherheit sehr hohes Ausmaß erreicht. In Windparks ist die Sicherheit übrigens so, dass wir noch den Raum nutzen können und die unbesetzten Gebiete auch für die Landwirtschaft oder Weidewirtschaft benuetzen koennen.

ENERGIA EOLICA:

 La forza del vento è sfruttata dall’uomo già da diversi secoli. Un tempo veniva impiegata per azionare i mulini, mentre oggi consente, grazie alle turbine eoliche, di produrre energia elettrica. Uno dei fattori necessari per l’installazione di una turbina eolica è la presenza di una velocità del vento costante, cosa che tuttavia è difficile da trovare nel territorio altoatesino.

Già nell’antichità veniva sfruttato il vento per navigare e per muovere le pale dei mulini, utilizzati per macinare i cereali, per spremere olive o per pompare l’acqua. Solo da pochi decenni l’energia eolica viene impiegata per produrre elettricità.

L’energia eolica utilizza la forza  cinetica del vento. I principali vantaggi di questa fonte energetica sono la “pulizia” e la rinnovabilità dell’energia utilizzata e trasformata.Uno degli svantaggi invece è dato dall’impatto estetico sul paesaggio e in alcuni casi dalla rumorosità.

L’energia elettrica si ottiene sfruttando l’energia cinetica del vento che fa girare le pale di un’elica; queste a loro volta sono collegate ad un generatore che trasforma l’energia meccanica in energia elettrica. Questi moderni mulini a vento sono chiamati aero-generatori.

Negli ultimi anni la potenza eolica e la produzione di energia elettrica del vento hanno subito una grande crescita. Finora l’85% della potenza installata nel mondo si trova in dieci Paesi: Cina, USA, Germania, Spagna, India, Gran Bretagna, Italia, Francia, Canada e Danimarca.

Tradizionalmente, fin dall’inizio dell’utilizzo del vento come fonte di energia elettrica, i Paesi che più hanno investito e prodotto sono stati Germania, Spagna e USA: la Germania è sempre stata la prima in classifica, ma nel 2011 è stata sorpassata da Cina e Stati Uniti. Infatti, negli ultimi 5 anni la Cina è diventato il principale Paese emergente nel settore eolico.

Nel 2011 l’Italia si è posizionata al 7° posto nel mondo nella classifica per la potenza eolica.

Le condizioni per la produzione di energia eolica nel nostro Paese, inoltre, non sono delle più favorevoli, a causa della conformazione allungata e stretta del territorio e della presenza di rilievi elevati, come l’arco alpino, che fanno da ostacolo ai venti, tuttavia localmente vi sono molte situazioni favorevoli, in particolare lungo il crinale appenninico adriatico e sulle isole.

Alla fine del 2012, in Italia risultano installati 1.054 impianti eolici. A causa delle caratteristiche fisiografiche del nostro territorio e del conseguente regime dei venti, tuttavia, la distribuzione non è uniforme nelle diverse Regioni. Il maggior numero di impianti si trova in Puglia, seguita da Campania , Basilicata.

Si vede quindi come le Regioni dell’Italia meridionale e centrale siano le più produttive.

In Alto Adige invece, l’energia eolica ha un ruolo di secondo piano a causa della scarsa velocità media dei venti e della difficile conformazione del territorio.

Accanto agli impianti della Muta di Malles e di Campo Tures, sono stati realizzati alcuni impianti di piccole dimensioni.

l’energia eolica risulta poco sviluppato in Alto Adige, a causa delle condizioni sfavorevoli del territorio.

L’energia eolica viene utilizzata attraverso due tipi di pale eoliche: quelle ad asse verticale e quelle ad asse orizzontale.

Le turbine che si vedono abitualmente nei moderni parchi eolici, sono costituite da una torre e tre pale ad asse orizzontale, dalle quali prendono il nome (generatori eolici ad asse orizzontale).

Meno frequenti sono le turbine ad asse verticale, meno efficienti delle prime, sono in grado tuttavia, di incanalare il vento in tutte le direzioni e, anche con venti deboli, riescono a ruotare rapidamente. Sono costituite da una torre centrale intorno alla quale sono disposte le pale verticali.

In cima alla torre trovano spazio il rotore, il generatore elettrico e un motore controllato da un computer che fa in modo che le pale siano sempre ruotate verso il vento per sfruttarlo quanto più possibile.

L’energia è generata dalla rotazione della pala che, ruotando, fa girare un albero motore che alimenta il generatore elettrico.

La presenza di una vasta quantità di pale eoliche potrebbe sembrare non sicura. In realtà, le più moderne pale possono tranquillamente essere situate vicino a zone abitate, in quanto il loro grado di sicurezza ha raggiunto livelli estremamente elevati. Inoltre, nei parchi eolici, la sicurezza è tale da poter comunque utilizzare le aree di spazio rimaste libere, anche per l’agricoltura o la pastorizia.

Cos’è l’idrogeno

L’idrogeno (dal greco  significa «generare», quindi «generatore d’acqua») è il primo elemento chimico della tavola periodica, è il più leggero, ha numero atomico 1 e simbolo H. L’idrogeno è l’elemento più abbondante dell’universo osservabile. È presente nell’acqua (11,19%) e in tutti i composti organici e organismi viventi. A pressione atmosferica e a temperatura ambiente (298 K), l’idrogeno si trova sotto forma di un gas biatomico avente la formula H2. Tale gas è incolore, inodore, insapore ed altamente infiammabile, con un punto di ebollizione di soli 20,27 K e un punto di fusione di 14,02 K.V

Le stelle sono principalmente composte di idrogeno nello stato di plasma, mentre sulla Terra è scarsamente presente allo stato libero e molecolare e deve quindi essere prodotto per i suoi vari usi. In particolare è usato nella produzione di ammoniaca, nell’idrogenazione degli oli vegetali, in aeronautica (in passato nei dirigibili), come combustibile alternativo e, di recente, come riserva di energia nelle pile a combustibile. Inoltre è occluso in alcune rocce, come il granito.

Cos’è una la pila a combustibile:

Una cella a combustibile (detta anche pila a combustibile o dal inglese fuel cell) è un dispositivo elettrochimico che permette di ottenere elettricità direttamente da certe sostanze, tipicamente da idrogeno ed ossigeno, senza che avvenga alcun processo di combustione termica.
Il rendimento delle pile a combustibile può essere molto alta, e uno dei pochi limiti alla sua diffusione è il costo fin ora elevato che è giustificato dall’utilizzo di platino al loro interno.

Come funziona

L’idrogeno può essere usato come portatore di energia ed è molto diffuso nel mondo (vengono prodotti circa 900 miliardi di metri cubi all’anno corrispondenti a 42 milioni di tonnellate), perché non inquina la Terra dato che esso viene carburato solamente con ossigeno formando acqua. L’idrogeno viene tolto dall’H2O, quindi dall’acqua, tramite energia elettrica in modo che resti solamente l’H2.In seguito l’idrogeno viene immagazzinato, invece l’ossigeno(O) non viene più utilizzato e si disperde nell’aria. Quando l’H2 viene bruciato con l’ossigeno dell’atmosfera (per esempio nel serbatoio di una macchina) forma acqua e libera energia. Questo procedimento può essere rifatto per infinite volte. L’idrogeno è anche un ottimo combustibile e al giorno d’oggi tante macchine funzionano attraverso questo metodo. Nel loro serbatoio avviene il procedimento spiegato sopra.

Come viene utilizzato nel mondo

L’economia a idrogeno può essere vista sotto due profili: da una parte esistono luoghi in cui è disponibile (o si costruisce) un sovrabbondante potenziale di generazione di energia elettrica, dall’altra parte esistono ricche città come Londra, e regioni densamente popolate, che hanno bisogno di generare elettricità inquinando poco (ad esempio con la pila a combustibile) e di alimentare il trasporto pubblico con carburanti a basso tenore di inquinanti.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            L’idrogeno  viene utilizzato come carburante per le navette spaziali della NASA.

L’energia dell’idrogeno attualmente prodotta viene usata per convertire le fonti pesanti di petrolio in frazioni più leggere ed adatte per essere impiegate come carburante (questo processo è noto come hydrocracking).                                                                                                                                                                                L’idrogeno può essere utilizzato per produrre altri composti o come combustibile per produrre energia. In particolare, l’idrogeno prodotto è impiegato nell’industria chimica, per produrre ammoniaca, alcool metilico (metanolo), concimi per l’agricoltura e prodotti petroliferi, e nell’industria metallurgica per il trattamento dei metalli. L’idrogeno è poi un ottimo combustibile che può essere utilizzato per produrre energia in due modi. Il primo metodo consiste nel bruciare l’idrogeno da solo, oppure aggiunto ad altri combustibili. Il secondo metodo consiste nel far reagire l’idrogeno in modo chimico con l’ossigeno (non bruciandolo), ottenendo direttamente energia elettrica attraverso un dispositivo chiamato cella a combustibile.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      La produzione mondiale annua di idrogeno è di 500 miliardi di metri cubi, equivalenti a 44 milioni di tonnellate.

Dove viene utilizzato nel mondo

Grandi quantità di idrogeno sono necessarie per applicazioni industriali.

In altri settori gli impieghi sono di portata inferiore e vengono tipicamente gestiti dall’industria dei gas tecnici. Viene usato ad esempio: nelle raffinerie petrolchimiche, nell’industria metallurgica, nell’industria alimentare, nell’industria del vetro e nell’industria elettronica.                                                                                                                                                                                                         raffinerie petrolchimiche

L’idrogeno viene usato anche nei motori delle macchine e dei mezzi di trasporto pubblico, come autobus. Grazie a ciò le macchine producono meno gas e non inquinano l’aria.

Come e dove viene usato in Trentino Alto Adige

L’Alto Adige sottolinea, ancora una volta, il suo impegno verso un futuro senza emissioni nocive con l’apertura del primo Centro Idrogeno in Italia, dell’Istituto per le Innovazioni tecnologiche.

L’appuntamento è per giovedì 5 giugno quando, alla Fiera di Bolzano con Klima energy e Klima mobility, inaugureranno il nuovo centro in Via  Agruzzo a Bolzano. Il nuovo Centro H2 Alto Adige, oltre alla mobilità, offrirà ampie opportunità all’economia locale e nuove prospettive di lavoro. Tramite questo progetto europeo saranno offerte delle alternative ai carburanti fossili nella vita quotidiana.

Grazie all’ innovativa tecnica di produzione di idrogeno, sfruttando energia elettrica da fonte rinnovabile, ogni anno, a partire dal 2014, sono stati sostituiti circa 500.000 litri di carburante fossile con l’idrogeno. Una centrale a idrogeno è una centrale che produce energia elettrica a partire dall’idrogeno.

Come e dove viene usato in Italia

Centrale di Fusina:

Dal 2010 a Marghera, con un investimento di 47 milioni di euro, è attiva la centrale a idrogeno più grande del mondo, nonché la prima al mondo di livello industriale, con una potenza installata di 16MW.

La questione principale, ipotizzando un futuro ad idrogeno, è da sempre quella di riuscire a produrre in grandi quantità questo prezioso elemento, per poi immagazzinarlo ed utilizzarlo nelle diverse applicazioni al centro degli studi e delle ricerche di tutto il mondo.

Questa difficoltà è in parte attenuata nello scenario presente a Marghera.

A Marghera, una delle più vaste ed attrezzate aree industriali d’Europa, l’idrogeno è infatti presente su larga scala come prodotto residuale di produzioni chimiche. Inoltre, vi sono in quest’area importanti strutture industriali che già gestiscono la filiera dell’idrogeno e garantiscono un solido know how per l’applicazione nel settore stazionario e in quello dei trasporti.

Lo sfruttamento di risorse preesistenti, ragioni di opportunità e l’interesse dimostrato dalle industrie presenti nell’area sono i motivi che hanno eletto Porto Marghera come sito ideale per l’avvio di tale iniziativa.

Centrale Milano Bicocca:

Rappresenta il primo impianto Europeo di produzione elettrica tramite celle a combustibile è entrata in

funzione nel 1992 a scopo sperimentale. Nel 1998, come previsto, è stata fermata la produzione. L’impianto è stato poi revisionato ed è ripartito nel 2004.                                                                                                                                                                    Questa centrale produceva idrogeno a partire dal metano.

L’impianto è costituito da sotto-impianti di: trattamento del combustibile, aria di processo, celle a combustibile, raffreddamento dei moduli elettrochimici, smaltimento del calore, condizionamento di potenza.

WASSERSTOFF

WAS IST WASSERSTOFF?

Wasserstoff ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Symbol H (zuerst vom altgriechischen „entstehen“, danach vom Begriff ,,Wasserentstehung “) und im Periodensystemsteht er an erster Stelle.

Wasserstoff ist das häufigste chemische Element im Universum. Er ist Bestandteil des Wassers(11,19%) und beinahe aller organischen Verbindungen. Somit kommt gebundener Wasserstoff in sämtlichen lebenden Organismen vor.

Er ist ein farbloses, geruchloses, geschmackloses, erheblich entzündbares Gas, mit ein Siedepunkt von nur 20,27 K und ein Schmelzpunkt von 14,02 K. Bei Atmosphärendruck und bei Raumtemperatur (298 K), ist der Wasserstoff eine Form eines zweiatomigen Gases mit der Formel H2.

Die Sterne sind in der ersten Schicht im Plasmazustand aus Wasserstoff   gemacht, während auf der Erde ist der Wasserstoff   kaum im wilden und molekularen Zustand gegenwertig und muss deswegen für seine verschiedenen Verwendungen hergestellt werden. Insbesondere wird bei der Herstellung von Ammoniak, die Hydrierung von pflanzlichen Ölen, Luftfahrt- (in der Vergangenheit in Luftschiffe), als alternativer Verbrennstoff, und seit kurzem als Brennstoff als Energiereserve in Brennstoffzellen verwendet. Es kann auch in einigen Felsen wie Granit vorkommen.

WAS IST EINE BRENNSTOFFZELLE?

Eine Brennstoffzelle wandelt wasserstoffreiche Brennstoffe in Elektrizität um. Statt einer klassischen (und emissionsintensiven) Verbrennung arbeiten Brennstoffzellen mit einer elektrochemischen Reaktion.

Die Effizienz von Brennstoffzellen kann sehr hoch sein und eine der wenigen Einschränkungen seiner Ausbreitung ist ihr Preis, der sehr teuer für die Verwendung von Platin in ihren Inneren ist.

Wie kann man mit Wasserstoff Energie herstellen?

Wasserstoff kann als Energiereserve gebraucht werden. Diese Methode ist sehr verbreitet(es werden jährlich mehr als 42 Millionen Tonnen hergestellt), überhaupt weil es umweltfreundlich ist und die Natur nicht verschmutzt, da man ihn nur mit Sauerstoff verbrennt.

Der Wasserstoff wird erstmals vom H2O, also vom Wasser, mit elektrischer Energie entnommen sodass nur noch dasH2 übrig bleibt. Daraufhin wird der Wasserstoff gespeichert, während der übrige Sauerstoff nicht mehr gebraucht ist und in der Luft verloren geht. Wenn der Wasserstoff dann wieder mit Sauerstoff in Kontakt kommt wird Energie ausgesetzt. Nachdem das H2 und das O wieder Wasser gebildet haben kann man das Wasser wieder spalten und diesen Prozess erneut vorgehen lassen. Man kann somit auch Autos antreiben ohne die Luft zu verschmutzen.

WIE WIRD WASSERSTOFF IN DER WELT VERWENDET?

Man kann die Wasserstoffwirtschaft in zweierlei Hinsichten sehen: auf der einen Seite gibt es Orte, wo ein reichliches Potenzial an Energie verfügbar ist(oder wo man es baut), auf der anderen Seite gibt es reiche Städte wie London, oder dicht bevölkerte Regionen, die Energie auf naturfreundliche Weise herstellen(wie z.B. mit der Brennstoffzelle) und den Verkehr mit einem geringen Gehalt an umweltbelastenden Brennstoffen betreiben.

Wasserstoff wird auch als Energiequelle der Raumschiffe der NASA verwendet.

Die aktuell produzierte Energie des Wasserstoffs wird für die Umwandlung von schweren Erdölquellen in leichtere Fraktionen und ist als Brennstoff geeignet(dieser Vorgang wird Wasserstoff kann um andere Verbindungen herzustellen oder als Brennstoff zur Erzeugung von Energie verwendet werden. Insbesondere wird der erzeugte Wasserstoff in der chemischen Industrie eingesetzt, um Ammoniak, Methylalkohol (Methanol), Düngemittel für die Landwirtschaft und Erdölprodukte herzustellen( in der metallurgischen Industrie zur Behandlung von Metallen).

Wasserstoff ist eine ausgezeichnete Brennstoffzelle, die auf zwei Arten verwendet werden kann, Energie zu erzeugen.

Die erste Methode ist, den Wasserstoff allein oder mit einem anderen Brennstoff zu verbrennen.

Der zweite Vorgang besteht daraus den Wasserstoff chemisch mit Sauerstoff reagieren zu lassen(ohne ihn zu verbrennen), indem man dank einer Vorrichtung namens Brennstoffzelle direkt elektrische Energie(Strom) gewinnt.

Die jährliche Weltproduktion von Wasserstoff beträgt 500 Milliarden Kubikmeter , das entspricht 44 Millionen Tonnen.

WO ES VERWENDET WIRD

Große Mengen von Wasserstoff sind für industrielle Anwendungen erforderlich. In anderen Bereichen sind die Verwendungen niedriger und sind in der Regel durch die technischen Gase der Industrie behandelt. Es wird zum Beispiel in Raffinerien, Petrochemie, in der metallurgischen Industrie, in der Lebensmittelindustrie, in der Glasindustrie und in der Elektronikindustrie verwendet.

Wasserstoff wird auch in den Motoren von Pkws und öffentlichen Verkehrsmittel wie Bussen eingesetzt. Dank dieser Maschinen wird weniger Gas produziert und die Luft wird nicht verschmutzt.

                                                                LA GEOTERMIA

-INTRODUZIONE

Il termine ‘geotermico’ ha il suo etimo dal greco “” e “thermòs”, che significa letteralmente “calore della Terra”.

Con il termine energia geotermica si vuole intendere l’energia, sotto forma di calore, posseduta dalla Terra al suo interno. Nelle zone più profonde tale calore può raggiungere temperature fino ai 4000 °C. Il calore della terra è del tutto naturale, soprattutto di quantità molto elevata ed è sempre presente, non è intermittente ed è inesauribile. Per questo motivo l’energia geotermica è considerata una fonte rinnovabile di energia.

In certe zone l’acqua e i gas scaldati nel sottosuolo salgono fino in superficie ad alta pressione sotto forma di geyser o soffioni e si possono usare per la produzione di energia elettrica.

Esistono due tipi di geotermia:

La geotermia di profondità sfrutta il calore del sottosuolo mediante delle specifiche turbine dove vengono raccolti i vapori prodotti dalle sorgenti di acqua che si trovano nel sottosuolo con l’obiettivo di produrre energia elettrica.

La geotermia di superficie, invece, viene usata per la climatizzazione dell’ambiente sia per riscaldare che per rinfrescare attraverso l’uso di pompe di calore elettriche e ad assorbimento.

L’UTILIZZO

Gli attuali sistemi di riscaldamento e raffreddamento che utilizzano pompe di calore geotermiche, si basano sul principio, che orientativamente, la temperatura del terreno si mantiene quasi costante durante il corso dell’anno.

Questo aspetto comporta benefici sia durante la stagione invernale, poiché il terreno in questo periodo ha una temperatura un po’ più calda rispetto a quella dell’aria esterna, sia durante la stagione estiva poiché la temperatura è più bassa di quella dell’aria. Le pompe adottano un sistema di tubi interrati collegati a degli scambiatori, che sfruttano il flusso liquido per aggiungere o togliere calore nei vari ambienti.

Lo scambiatore e il serbatoio dell’impianto per l’acqua vanno collocati sottoterra. La pompa di calore invece va collocata anche in luoghi come la cantina, il garage, nell’ antibagno o può anche essere posizionata fuori ad un balcone all’ esterno, l’importante è che sia protetta.                       

FUNZIONAMENTO    

La Terra ha un gradiente termico che aumenta di 3°C mediamente ogni 100 metri di profondità. D’estate in profondità c’è più fresco rispetto alla superficie, mentre d’inverno avviene l’inverso: in profondità c’è più caldo che in superficie terrestre.

Le centrali geotermiche sfruttano il calore delle profondità terrestri.

Attraverso le eruzioni vulcaniche, le acque e i vapori riscaldatisi in profondità salgono verso la superficie e possono essere utilizzati come fonte di calore oppure per produrre energia elettrica.

Se il vapore è presente ad alta temperatura (200°-300°) viene convogliato direttamente alla turbina che ne trasforma l’energia cinetica in energia meccanica di rotazione. L’asse della turbina è collegato al rotore dell’alternatore che, ruotando, trasforma l’energia meccanica ricevuta in energia elettrica alternata che viene trasmessa al trasformatore.

Il trasformatore innalza il valore della tensione (400.000.v) e la immette nella rete di distribuzione.

Sistemi a vapore secco “a vapore dominante”: costituiti soprattutto da vapore secco che si trova a pressioni e temperature elevate accompagnato da altri gas o sostanze solubili. Il vapore può essere utilizzato direttamente per la produzione di energia elettrica convogliandolo ad una turbina. Nel mondo sono noti pochi sistemi di questo tipo.

Sistemi ad acqua calda: contengono acqua a temperatura inferiore ai 100° C (50-82° C) utilizzabile soprattutto per usi diretti (riscaldamento delle abitazioni, delle serre, impianti industriali).

Sistemi magmatici: sono sistemi artificiali che mirano a sfruttare il calore diretto di un magma per riscaldare un fluido di lavoro. Sono al primo stadio di sperimentazione.     

LE CENTRALI GEOTERMICHE IN ITALIA 

In Italia la produzione di energia elettrica dalla geotermia è fortemente concentrata in Toscana. I giacimenti naturali di vapore in Toscana producono ogni anno oltre 4 miliardi di Kilowattora di elettricità nelle sole centrali toscane di Larderello (Pisa) e di Montieri. A Larderello si trova il primo impianto geotermico costruito al mondo:

DEUTSCH

Der BegriffGeothermiehat seinen Ursprung aus dem griechischen ” undThermòs”, das bedeutet buchstäblichWärme aus der Erde“.

Mi dem Begriff Geothermie versteht man die Energie in Form von Wärme, welche in der Erde enthalten ist. In tieferen Bereichen kann diese Wärme Temperaturen von bis zu 4000° c erreichen. Erdwärme ist natürlich, vor allem bei sehr hohen Betrag und ist immer präsent und ist unerschöpflich. Darum wird die geothermische Energie als erneuerbare Energiequelle   betrachtet.

In einigen Bereichen steigen erhitzte Gase und das Wasser bis an die Oberfläche mit hohem Druck in Form von Geysiren oder Duschköpfe und wir verwenden sie, um Strom zu erzeugen.
Es gibt zwei Arten von Geothermie: die tiefe Geothermie nutzt die Wärme des Untergrundes
die oberflächennahe Geothermie verwendet Energie für Klimaanlagen

Die vorhandenen Heiz– und Kühlsysteme, nutzen die geothermische Wärmepumpen, die auf dem Prinzip basieren, dass die Bodentemperatur im Laufe des Jahres nahezu konstant bleibt.
Dieser Aspekt bringt Vorteile sowohl im Winter, da der Boden in dieser Zeit ein bisschen wärmer als die Außenluft ist, sowohl während des Sommers, weil die Temperatur niedriger als die der Luft ist. Die Pumpen verwenden unterirdische Leitungen, die Wärmetauscher, in denen eine Flüssigkeit ist, http://it.pons.com/traduzione/tedesco-italiano/flie%C3%9Fen die zum Hinzufügen oder Entfernen von Hitze in verschiedenen Umgebungen dient.

Wärmetauscher und das Wassersystem Tank müssen sich unter der Erde befinden. Die warme Pumpe befindet sich auch an Orten wie Keller oder Garage, das wichtigste ist, dass sie geschützt ist.

GEBRAUCH

Die Erde hat einen Temperaturgradientender um 3°C pro100 m Tiefe steigt. Geothermie-Kraftwerke nutzen die Wärme der tieferen Erde.
Durch Vulkanausbrüche, steigen Wasser und Dampf an die Oberfläche und können als Quelle von Wärme oder Strom verwendet werden.
Wenn der Dampf mit hoher Temperatur vorhanden ist (200°-300 °) wird er direkt an  die Turbine vermitteltdie die kinetische Energie  in mechanische Energie umwandeltDie Achse der Turbine ist mit dem  Rotor des Generators verbunden, der drehend, die mechanische Energie in elektrische Energie umwandelt,   die an den Transformator übertragen wird. Der Transformator erhöht den Spannungswert (400. 000) und speist es in das Vertriebsnetz.
Heiß Wasser-Systemeenthalten Wasser mit Temperaturen unter 100° C                      (50-82° C) und eignen sich besonders für direkte Anwendungen

(Gehäuse, Beheizung vonGewächshäusern, Industrieanlagen).
Magmatische Systemesind künstliche Systemedie darauf abzielendie direkte Hitze des Magmas,  nutzbar zu machenSie sind in den frühen Stadien des Experimentierens.

Geothermische Energie in der Welt

Die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika sind  auf dem ersten Platz für die Produktion von geothermischer Energie. Geothermische Energie-Produktion: 3086 MW.

Die Philippinen sind an zweiter Stelle: Geothermische Energie-Produktion: 1904 MW.

Mexiko ist auf dem dritten Platz. Geothermie: 958 MW.

Italien liegt auf dem fünften Platz nach Indonesien. Geothermische Energie-Produktion: 843 MW.

Geothermie in Südtirol und Italien

In Südtirol gibt‘s keine Geothermie-Anlage.

In Italien konzentriert sich die Produktion von Strom aus Erdwärme stark in der Toskana. Natürliche Dampffeldern in der Toskana (Larderello und Montieri) produzieren jährlich mehr als 4Milliarden Kilowattstunden StromIn Larderello ist das erste geothermische Kraftwerk der Welt gebaut worden.

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La Ricchezza del nostro territorio, classe 1a, Scienze

I asked my students of the 2ndA to write an essay on our two years together. I am publishing here some of the most meaningful comments. 

Anny Ballardini

During these two years I’ve learned a lot.

During the first year I learned a lot of grammar. I already knew some of the grammar rules that we did but I didn’t know when we had to use a certain tense or quantifier.

By learning in a more specific way , I had the chance to talk better, without making, quite, any mistakes.

I learned some literature, too. When we had to go to Rome, we studied Caravaggio and that really helped me because I could recognize some paintings and I knew what they represented.

Reading “Frankenstein” and “The Hobbit” in English made me realize how beautiful reading a classic book in its original language is. Reading these books and learning about famous people, like Benjamin Franklin, during the English class, made me realize how beautiful it is to study a culture.

I already loved English but I didn’t know the value of knowing it.

When we went on our school trip in Bournemouth, I was so happy to speak with English people but not just because I love the language, but because they could understand me. I could talk to them without the need to stop  because I didn’t know how to use a tense.

Grammar can be boring but it helps you, it has helped me reach my goal.

In these two years I understood that it was really important to know the culture of a language, its history.

In the English class I realized, that if I study hard, I can get to my goal and set another one, just higher.

Since middle-school I have wanted to speak English fluently and thanks to all the grammar that we did in the English class, I did it. I will always be thankful for this.

© Mirna Vezzali

When I first arrived in Italy two years ago and started to attend this school, English was the language that I could best speak at. It has always been my favorite foreign language and fortunately the one that I have been studying in-depth in Albania. When I started to live here in Italy, I had to dedicate a lot of time to the Italian language as I couldn’t speak fluently and initially I had difficulties to understand properly or entirely the didactic Italian lessons. So, my deep dedication in the Italian, made me have fear that I wouldn’t have the same quantity of time to dedicate to my favorite language and use it also outside school as I used to do in Albania. Fortunately, even though I couldn’t speak in English for a lot of time out of school, my fear of my progress in English is these two years, has disappeared. The English school lesson in this two years period has helped me a lot to strengthen all the grammar rules, not only to learn and repeat theory, but also by putting into practice all these rules and by being continually corrected by the teacher in my spoken mistakes, besides the ones in writing.

      The lessons have been organized in a very interactive way. We have always developed new and very interesting activities in class like : discussions on different topics; presentations; the analysis of documentaries about historical figures or events, together with plenty of other topics. This has enriched a lot not only my English personal vocabulary, but also my personal cultural knowledge in different fields of life. These two years have helped me to develop my self-confidence when I speak in English, and consequently become much more fluent.

     So, in few words, these two years were a really beautiful experience for me , being always immersed in the English world during each English-class and I’m really glad that this experience was concluded in the best way with the beautiful trip to England which will be unforgettable for me.

( C ) RAFAELA ISUFI

These two years were really full of information (written without the “s”) because I learned a lot of things, between grammar rules and new topics… I have to say that my English level was low when I first came here, and now the quality of my spoken English is better. During the first year I studied more, and I was always concentrated on the school; these last months I left the school go where the wind blew, and as the register shows, I received a beautiful 4…

I can say “thank you” to the teacher, because she really helped me to increase my English, even if I have to work still a lot to become better. Apart form this I’m happy to have worked and learned a lot, and I’m sure that this test will be full of mistakes, because I’m like this, I always make errors… Thank you!

© Alex Aufderklamm

When I came to high school I was already able to read and speak in English, but my grammar knowledge was very limited. Since the beginning of past school year I have studied grammar and I realized how important it is, not only to correct writing and speaking, but also to understand the structure of the English language.

In these two years we have followed our grammar course book which particularly focuses on the employment of the time tenses. English grammar isn’t considered too difficult, but the right use of the tenses is fundamental. Thanks to the variety of them and the little differences in meaning we can explain exactly what we intend to say, what may be more difficult for those who learned English from watching films.

We didn’t do a lot of writing in class during our lessons. Instead we learned this out of the summaries we did of a book we read and our teacher corrected. We did many speaking and oral exercises all together in class which improved a lot our pronunciation. We learned to speak more fluently and to express ourselves correctly. This is fundamental in learning a language. Probably some us us might study English at university, but all of us will have to use their speaking skills later in life. Speaking is so important and everybody needs these skills; good writing and reading can be studied more detailed later by interested students. Trough the books we had to read and summarize we improved our reading skills and at the same time we have augmented our vocabulary, without too many efforts.

Now sometimes I read short articles or watch English documentaries and every time I’m impressed by how much I understand and how familiar this language has become to me.

© Jenny Kostner   II A

We have already spent two years together. I think I have learned a lot in this first two-year-period of high school. We have had a lot of discussion in class, read some books and did a lot of exercises. I think the fact of reading entire books has enriched me a lot . It was a completely new experience for me, but I enjoyed it very much, even if I usually don’t love reading. I gained a lot of new vocabulary and could analyze different kinds of writing. A part from this, it was also very helpful for my writing, indeed I could use the new words and memorize them better, by summarizing the chapters. By reading books, having discussions about common themes and doing exercises, I was able to learn without noticing. I think all this has improved me not only as a student, but also as a person. My “culture” has increased and I didn’t really do it on purpose. I didn’t really sit down to start learning. This was what I liked the most: I could learn every day in class. I obviously had some difficulties, because logically it is impossible to learn a language without efforts and all the grammar rules. Fortunately I have had good English teachers in middle-school, who gave me the basis for my English, that I managed to study better during this period. The grammar rules that we learned were much more specific and helped me a lot. It is a success for me, because now I’m able to speak and understand people without having too many problems. This two-year-period of high school has been a positive experience for me.

© Celine Lantschner

This first two-year-period of high school has brought many changes to my life. I think that in this short period of time I have grown up as a person, my mind has developed thanks to the help of my teachers and new experiences. I’ve learned much from every teacher and everyone has given me something that I’ll take with me in my life journey.

In English I’ve learned many new things, not only about grammar, which I studied by heart, but also general information about history, literature and contemporary arts and technology. Thanks to our American English teacher I have enjoyed listening to the little speeches she did in class, and by listening I’ve learned a very good pronunciation. In these two years my vocabulary has been enriched with a lot of words and synonyms that are very helpful in writing a good essay. The lessons we had were sometimes funny and easy-going, because we talked a lot about interesting things and without making too much effort we learned and understood many different things. Personally I think that after these two years I have a good overview of the English-world.

English has been one of my favorite languages since I started studying it at the elementary school. It was never very difficult for me to study this foreign language, and when I had to do some efforts, I did them happily. After this two-years-period and the trip to Bournemouth I think that I understood the importance of this language, being it the language spoken in the entire world. All the efforts I put in the learning of this language have been paid back. The English language is a very valuable personal baggage that I’ll take with me forever. I hope my English studies will be helpful in my future life and that I’ll have the possibility to go on speaking English.

© Chiara Bernardi

 

End of the Academic year: 2ndA

the-wheat-field

The Wheat Field by Claude Monet

Nature is very important for man, because it is something amazing for the territory and also for people. Many trees, animals, rivers, mountains are always beautiful to see. When tourists go on holiday, the go to place where there is nature and peace. I think nature is relaxing, when you are angry or sad you can there your calmness and happiness. Nature is also various: flowers, plants and other. It isn’t boring, because if you look at trees, animals, you can always see something different. Animals are very important because without them, we do not have the food that we need and also because they are something essential. With plants, that produce oxygen, we can live. The colours of nature are incredible and different: red, orange, pink, yellow, blue, green. A rainbow of colours! Without animals and plants we can’t have the ecosystem and every place or city would be full of houses, industries and shops. But in the past twenty year, pollution has been increasing. We have many types of pollution: light pollution, industry pollution. Many industries are built near green-areas and they produce an enormous quantity of CO₂ and the air has become polluted. The animals and the people breathe it and it damages our organism. There is deforestation, which destroys natural habitats of animals, they can’t live and they must leave. So animals go to zoos and live in cages. There are acid rains which are caused by the production of the acidity emitted from the industries. Acid rains destroys the plants, the plants and flowers, but also the structures. The Global Warming is one of the most extreme examples of pollution in these years. Earth is getting hotter because the ozonosphere is getting smaller and it can’t stop the radiation of the Sun, so the Earth receives much warmth. How can we solve the enormous problems we have? At first we have to think about nature and animals. Which damage do they receive? Animals are endangered because they do not have their habitats. We can build green-areas where animals can live free and close the zoos, because they aren’t of any help. For the plants, that are subjected to pollution, we can reduce the quantity of industry or build them in areas not near nature. It is something difficult because politicians don’t think so much about nature, and without the help of politicians we can’t do anything. This is horrible, the politicians think about economy, money but when the problem is nature it is if it was something of no importance. So, before saying that we have to reduce pollution, we have to believe in it and want to save nature, because it is amazing and without it, we are nothing.

© PAOLA DONAGRANDI

 

Paola Donagrandi and Nature

1

Dear Mr. Roland Sharp
Director
——————————————-
T +44 (0) 1202 774104
M +44 (0) 7881 244042
E roland@eurostudies.co.uk
Skype: rolandpsharp
——————————————-
97 Commercial Road
Bournemouth
Dorset
BH2 5RT
United Kingdom
http://www.eurotrainingcentres.com

 

We are so grateful to have been given the opportunity to live this fantastic experience in Bournemouth.

Our leader, Mrs. Ballardini, told us a lot about you and the school you built up during the last few years. The first day we came to school we did not know what to expect because we have never been through a similar experience. Suzannah, divided us into three different groups, according to our levels in English. All the three classes got mixed up. It was very helpful because we got to know the other students of whom we did not know much about before.
Taryn, Suzannah and Domi are very good teachers and with them we did not just learn a lot about the English language, but also about the English culture. We really enjoyed the afternoon activities: Durdle Door, Lolworth Cove, Portsmouth, bowling, the Russel Cottes Museum, Bath and Hengistbury Head.

The trip we enjoyed most was Bath: it reminded us of Italy’s cities because the Romans constructed so many buildings like the Roman Baths, Paultney Bridge, the Royal Crescent and the Circus. It is both an old and modern city that keeps developing year by year. During the tour, we stopped in front of the Royal Crescent to admire its beautiful architecture. After the tour we had some free time so that we could visit what everybody thought they wanted to see better on their own. Some students visited the art gallery, some went to the Cathedral, some to Waterstones -the big book chain in England with their superb cafeteria, some went to the shopping centre, some just wandered around the old town to discover the beauty of the less known streets and corners. Chiara, Beatrice, Martina and Letizia preferred to go on a culinary adventure since they had had enough of Burger King and sandwiches. They ended up in a typical English pub, where they enjoyed a delicious lunch.
We learned so many interesting things. All the guides were very nice, and they were very clear in explaining the history of the different places we visited.
Our families were very helpful, caring and welcoming: they wanted to know a lot about Italy, as they had never been there. The food was very good and the rooms were clean and spacious.

We are so grateful that we could share this experience with you. We admire the work you do and what you have created in these years. You give so many young people the opportunity to study a beautiful language that is spoken by so many people all over the world. Thank you Mr. Sharp!

We wish you all the best!

Class 2nd B, Marcelline High School

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Letter to Roland Sharp – School Trip to England – 2B

Our students did work. They have discovered our town together and participated in the Speaker of the Year Competition. Here is their video:

and their introduction to what they shot to introduce it to the students from all over the world:

Come on! Come with us to visit Bolzano. It is the main bilingual (German-Italian) town in South Tyrol, and it is the most beautiful city in the world.

Our video starts with the Victory Monument erected by Mussolini after the annexation of South Tyrol to Italy at the end of WW1. It is close to the Talvera river that crosses Bolzano right in the center. We filmed the many wishful padlocks locked on the Talvera bridge, a tradition initially used by soldiers, now by lovers. From here we want to show you the Gothic Cathedral. It was started in 1184 and finished in the 16th century.

Now, let’s go shopping! From the most beautiful and traditional shops under the Porticos, we run all the way down to Piazza Erbe with its colorful stands and surrounding buildings in the typical German architecture.

To catch a sight of the breath-taking sunset, we walked along one of the many promenades that lead up to the mountains.

We end our video downtown, on the meadows of the Talvera river where all the people – young and old – gather, to greet you personally.

The 1st class of the Linguistic Lyceum, Istituto delle Marcelline, Bolzano

P.s.: We will be waiting for you to share Knödel, Kaiserschmarren, Sauerkraut, Speck, Schüttelbrot, Kamin Wurz, Moas, Apfelkuchen, Krapfen, and much more!

(c) 1st Class

The Beauty of our Territory: 1st Class

Mirna Vezzali with

 Coraline

By

Neil Gaiman

coraline

 

Chapter I :

Coraline Jones discovered the door after she and her family had moved in their new house. The home was big but Coraline’s family didn’t own all the house, they owned only a part because two sisters lived on the first floor: Miss Spink and Miss Forcible. They were two actresses when they were young. In the flat above Coraline’s lived a man who said he was going to create a circus with rats but didn’t want to show it. Coraline thought that he was mad and that he had invented it all.

The house had a big garden with a tennis court.

Coraline, went out in the park to explore because she loved exploring. She wanted to find the well that Miss Spink and Miss Forcible talked about. They warned her because they said that it was dangerous. When she found that well she saw only bricks and saw that the well was covered with wooden boards.

She continued to explore.

The following day it rained, so Coraline couldn’t go out to explore. She didn’t know what to do, her parents worked at the computer and didn’t pay her attention. Her father suggested she should count every door, window and everything that was in the house.

She counted everything that was in blue (153), the windows (21) and
the doors (14).

13 of the doors opened but the 14th didn’t. It was a big brown door. She asked her mother where that door took so her mother took a bunch of keys and with the oldest key opened the door. The door didn’t take anywhere. There was only a wall of bricks. Coraline’s mother said that, that door, before the house was divided, took to a room that now was an empty apartment on sale.

When the night came, and Coraline was falling asleep, she heard a noise, and then she saw a shadow. She followed the shadow that took her into the living-room. When she turned the light on she didn’t see anything so she went to bed.

Chapter II :

The following day it had stopped raining. Coraline went out for a walk. She met Miss Spink with her dogs and she met also Miss Forcible who was locked out of her house because Miss Spink had the keys. She also met the crazy old man who lived above her. He told her that she was in danger.

When Coraline was at home she didn’t know what to do because her parents worked. She went to Miss Spink and Miss Forcible. They offered a cup of tea to Coraline and then the two women started talking to each other about their past careers. Suddenly Miss Forcible said to Coraline that she was in danger, she didn’t know why. Miss Spink gave Coraline a stone with a hole in it and said that It could help her.

 

Chapter III:

Coraline and her mother went to the nearest shopping centre because Coraline needed some new clothes for the beginning of school. When they got home Coraline’s mother went out to buy something to eat. So she was alone in the house because her father had to go to London for work. She was bored, so she took the key of the door that led to nowhere. She opened it and didn’t find the wall of bricks but a dark hallway. That hallway was spooky. When it ended she found herself in her home again but something felt different. It was all the same except for her mother and father. She was tall, skinny and she had buttons instead of eyes, she was her “other mother”. The two of them sat at the table with her father. He also had buttons instead of eyes. Coraline went to her other room that had walls in pink and green colours. There were a lot of toys, she also found rats under her bed, they couldn’t talk but they could understand her. On the doorway there was the crazy man that lived above her. He had buttons too. He asked her if she wanted to go with him to his flat so she could watch him while feeding the rats, but Coraline said no, she preferred to go out and explore.

 

Chapter IV:

She met a black cat in the garden. She saw that cat before, it was the same cat that existed in the real world. The cat could talk. Later he said that Coraline did well to bring protection with her (referring to the stone that Miss Spink gave to her). Then the cat vanished.

Coraline went to Miss Spink and Miss Forcible’s home. When the girl entered the house she found herself in a theatre hall. There was a dog with a torch that could talk and that brought her to sit. The audience were all dogs. When the show began Coraline saw Miss Spink and Forcible. It was their show. The two of them made talent shows. Coraline asked how much the show lasted and the dog near her said “Forever”.

She went out of her home where her other parents waited for her.

They asked her if she wanted to stay there so they could be a real family. But if Coraline stayed, they wanted to do a little change. They wanted to replace her eyes with buttons. Coraline didn’t want, so she greeted them and went to the door that led to her real home. While she walked in the dark hallway she closed her eyes and when she opened them. Coraline was in her real living-room in her real house.

 

Chapter V:

Her mother wasn’t at home. So Coraline ate something and then went to sleep. The following day Coraline looked in the bedroom of her parents but she didn’t find them. They hadn’t come home. The little girl went out. She met Miss Spink, who said that she and her sister, Miss Forcible won’t be at home for a little bit because they would stay at Miss Forcible niece. Coraline returned back home where she wrote a story, watched television, cleaned the house and ate.

She tried to sleep but she missed her parents too much. When she woke up, she found the black cat who stared at her. The little girl asked him if he knew where her parents were, so the cat stood up and began to walk in the direction of the stairs. Coraline followed him. They stopped in front of the big mirror. At first it showed the hallway but then her parents who seemed sad. Her mother wrote something on the mirror: “HELP US” then they vanished. Coraline wanted to help them so at first she called the police but the policeman didn’t take Coraline’s words seriously so she decided to go to her other mother. Coraline knew that she had kidnapped her parents because she wanted Coraline to stay forever with them.

The little girl dressed up, and with the company of the black cat, went downstairs to the big brown door. They entered the door and when the big black hallway had an end she hugged the other mother saying that she missed her parents. The other mother said that they were there, both of them but Coraline wanted her real parents. So the other mother said to her that they were bored of her, they were in a better place. They went near the mirror which showed Coraline’s real parents happy. She didn’t trust the other mother who, using a rat, got the key of the door and locked it. When both the other parents where asleep, Coraline went out where she met the black cat. The cat explained that the other mother might want something different from herself to love and he also said that in order to defeat her, Coraline had to challenge here, because the other mother loved challenges. Coraline began to think about what the cat said. She went to her other room and fell asleep.

 

Chapter VI:

Coraline woke up in her other room. At first she felt like she didn’t know who she was but then she remembered who she was and what she had to do. Coraline dressed up and went downstairs. Everything was the same in the house but there wasn’t anybody. Her other mother wasn’t there but she found her other father that looked a bit different than he used to be.

Coraline began to speak with him and he said that he should not speak with her if the other mother wasn’t there. He also added that the other mother created all this other world.

Coraline went out exploring. She went really far. The trees didn’t seem trees anymore, instead they seemed more like drawing sketches. Everything was white. There she met the black cat who spoke with her.

Coraline thought that they were in the middle of nowhere but the cat showed her that she didn’t go too far. She went back where she started, like walking around the world. You start out walking away from something and end up coming back to it.

The house was silent. The little girl walked to the mirror, then the girl heard the other mother near her. The mirror didn’t reflect the other mother.

Coraline wanted to talk with her so they went to the living-room and started to talk. Coraline wanted to know where her real parents were. Coraline was being too disrespectful with the other mother , so the “woman” took a black key out, took Coraline in front of the mirror, opened the mirror and pushed Coraline in it.

Chapter VII:

Coraline was in a little space in the darkness. She thought that she was alone until she felt something soft like lips or cheeks.

Someone began to say to stay quiet. When Coraline’s eyes began to see something in the darkness, she recognised three figures. They had her same height. They told Coraline that they didn’t remember their names, they had been there for too long. They said that “she” had removed their hearts, they were dead. Empty.

Coraline asked if she could do something for them and they answered that She had their souls. They asked her if she could save them.

Chapter VIII:

The other mother brought Coraline out of the mirror. She brought her to the kitchen where she was cooing. Coraline said that in the mirror there were three children. The other mother didn’t listen to her. The little girl asked her if she wanted to play a game where Coraline had to look for the souls of the children. If Coraline was able to find them, the other mother would leave her alone and give her parents back, but if she failed to find the souls, she would stay forever where she was, and be an obedient child. The other mother accepted the challenge. Coraline began to search but she didn’t know how big a soul was. She went in front of the mirror, she looked in the stone with the hole which showed a way to her room. She went there, she searched everywhere but, at first, Coraline didn’t find anything. Then she looked again into the stone and saw that something was shining. It was a little grey ball. Suddenly she heard someone whispering that she needed to be fast because the other mother was angry. Coraline went out to the theatre of Miss Spink and Miss Forcible. The theatre was empty and ropy. Coraline looked through the stone where she saw something that shone on the stage. There was something like a bag but there were two people in it. Coraline grabbed the little ball and ran away.

Coraline found two souls of the three children. She needed to find the third one.

Chapter IX:

Coraline went out the garden where she found the other mother. She gave the girl a key which opened the door of the empty apartment. Coraline knew there was something wrong.

She entered the empty apartment. Coraline didn’t find anything, only a trapdoor which she opened.

She went down and turned the lights on. She found there her other dad. He was like a spider, with long legs. He didn’t want to hurt Coraline but She, the other mother, told him he had to do it.

Coraline ran up the stairs and closed, really fast, the trapdoor. She ran out of the apartment and went up the stairs of the house.

Chapter X:

She entered the house where the mad old man lived. She heard whispers that said that if she would stay there the other mother would do anything for her. She would give her anything, but Coraline wanted her parents and she already knew where she could find them. Coraline didn’t fear the man. In fact when the little girl got closer to him, he vanished. Coraline immediately looked in the stone where she saw that a rat was holding the little soul of the last child. The rat began to run and so did Coraline.

Coraline chased the rat but at the end the girl fell and hurt her knee. Fortunately the cat arrived with the little ball and gave it to Coraline.

The cat said that, now, everything had become a sketch, there weren’t entries or exits, but Coraline was brave, she took the cat with her and she went to the sketch of the house.

Chapter XI:

She entered the house but the house wasn’t a sketch. There were pieces of furniture and all. There was also her mother.

Coraline knew that she wasn’t going to keep the promise, so she had a plan.

When the other mother asked if she knew where her parents were Coraline said that they were in the corridor behind the door. The mother unlocked the door but there was nothing.

The other mother said that she had to stay there, but Coraline threw the cat to the mother, took the ball of glass and ran to the door. There with the cat, she closed the door, ran until they saw the exit.

Coraline was finally at her real home.

Chapter XII:

Coraline was woken up by the mother. The real mother. She was finally at home, Coraline hugged the mother and went in the bathroom to medicate her wounds.

She and her parents passed a nice evening together.

When Coraline was asleep she had a dream, she was having a picnic with the three kids that now were free but they said that for them everything had ended, not for Coraline. They thanked Coraline for what she did and then Coraline woke up. She saw a shadow and she knew what that was. That was the right hand of the other mother who wanted the key back.

Chapter XIII:

Coraline made a decision. She wanted to put an end to this story. She asked her mother if she could have an old table-cloth because she wanted to play dolls.

The little girl went to the well where she removed the wood boards and instead of those she put the table-cloth with the dolls and the cups and also the key.

She began to play and when the hand jumped out of the woods Coraline tried not to look. When the hand jumped on the well she saw exactly it falling down with the key. Immediately she covered the well with boards of woods and went back at home with the dolls.

It was the day before school began and usually Coraline was always nervous but not this time. She was not afraid of anything.

Comment:

I really liked this book, but i liked also the story itself. I think it is another version of “Alice in Wonderland” and the idea of the story, in my opinion, is really interesting. While in the story of Alice, the protagonist doesn’t run away from her world, in “Coraline” the protagonist has the need to escape her reality of boredom. I have noticed many moral teachings veiled in this story, the first of which is that you should always be careful at what you want. Some time after reading the book, I saw the movie and I really loved it, it can trap the idea of ​​boredom and dissatisfaction and then develop into a completely different world, full of color, music, life, but, which hide something sinister. You have that feeling from the beginning. In fact, since the beginning of time we have been taught that to come to terms with the devil there is always a price to pay and here again the protagonist has to pay the price for her desires. In short, I found it a really nice book, that makes you think. At times I was also afraid, especially when the true identity of the antagonist was given in the last chapters.

The book teaches one of the most important values, being happy with what you already have.

Author

Neil Richard MacKinnon Gaiman is an English author of short fiction, novels, comic books, graphic novels, audio theatre and films.

His notable works include the comic book series The Sandman and novels Stardust, American Gods, Coraline, and The Graveyard Book. He has won numerous awards, including the Hugo, Nebula, and Bram Stoker awards, as well as the Newbery and Carnegie medals. He is the first author to win both the Newbery and the Carnegie medals for the same work, The Graveyard Book.

In the early 1980s, Gaiman started to work as a journalist, conducting interviews and writing book reviews. Then Gaiman started writing also comic-books and novels. Several of Gaiman’s original works have been optioned for film adaptation, the most famous one is Stardust. Also a stop-motion version of Coraline was released on 6 February 2009.

Gaiman frequently performs public readings from his stories and poetry.

(c) Mirna Vezzali

Mirna Vezzali with Coraline By Neil Gaiman

About the author…

John R.R. Tolkien was born on the 3rd January 1892 in Bloemfontain (South Africa). He was a poet, writer, philologist and university professor. When he was three years old, he went to England with his brother and his mother, and they moved to Birmingham because his father had died. After serving in the First World War, he became best known for his books The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, selling 150 million copies in more than 40 languages worldwide. Those books, were published by his son Christopher after Tolkien’s death. The Times ranked him sixth on a list of “the 50 greatest British writers since 1945”. Awarded the CBE and an honorary Doctorate of Letters from Oxford University, he died in 1973 at the age of 81.

Hobbit_23

Chapter 1-un unexpected party

Bilbo Baggins was a Hobbit. He was the son of Belladonna Took and Mr. Bungo Baggins. He lived in a clean and comfortable hole in the ground. It had a round door, painted green with a shiny yellow brass knob in the exact middle. Inside there was a tunnel, where there were all the rooms: bedrooms, bathrooms, wardrobes, kitchen, dining-­‐rooms…which were all on the same floor and in the same passage. The Bagginses were a very respectable family for their wealth and because they had any adventures or did unexpected things. One morning, when there was less noise and more green and when hobbits were still numerous, and Bilbo was standing at his door smoking a pipe; Gandalf came by. He was an old man with a staff. He had a tall pointed blue hat, a long grey cloak, a silver scarf and a long white beard. Gandalf said that he was looking for someone to share an adventure. Bilbo didn’t want, he wanted him to go away, but the wizard didn’t move. Bilbo invited the wizard for a tea the next day, and he refused to share an adventure. Gandalf before going away, with the spike on his staff scratched a queer sign, the sign of burglars on the hobbit’s door. On the following day, a tremendous ring on the front-­‐door-­‐bell came, and Bilbo remembered the appointment with the wizard. It wasn’t the wizard, it was a dwarf with a blue beard called Dwalin. After a while, the doorbell rang again and more other dwarves came into Bagging’s house. They were: Balin, Kili, Fili, Dori, Ori, Nori, Oin, Gloin, Bifur, Bofur, Bombur, Thorin and Gandalf. They sat down around the table with the wizard, and they started eating, talking and singing. Thorin was the chief of dwarves, he was too important. All the thirteen dwarves told the story and their reason to this adventure: they wanted to reconquer Eldron, their home, and avenge Thror (Thorin’s grandfather). Gandalf asked Bilbo to share with them an adventure, but he refused again. After this, they went to sleep.

Chapter 2-roast mutton

The next morning, Bilbo woke up and he found nobody at the house. There was a fearful mess in the room, and piles of unwashed crocks in the kitchen. He was having breakfast when in walked Gandalf. Bilbo took the key and started running as fast as the great Mill, across The Water and then he joined all the thirteen dwarves. Thorin gave the hobbit a pony and they started this adventure. They hadn’t been riding very long, when Gandalf came on a white horse. They passed through hobbit-­‐lands, lands were people spoke strangely, Lonelands, lands were there wasn’t anything… One evening, one of the ponies took fright at nothing and bolted. He got into the river before the dwarves could catch him. Fili and Kili chased it, and they found a cave which came from a light. Thorin ordered Bilbo to go into the cave and to discover what it was…Bilbo found three very large trolls sitting around a very large fire of beech-­‐logs. Bilbo plucked up courage and put his little hand in William’s pocket (William is the name of a troll). Unfortunately William found the hobbit and fortunately trolls are slow in the uptake. Balin and all dwarves saw that scene and came up to defend Bilbo. Thorin, came last but Tom (the troll) captured him. All the dwarves included Bilbo were in prison. It was just then that Gandalf came back, but no one saw him. Gandalf saved all his friends and his voice kept the trolls bickering and quarrelling, until the light came and made an end of them. Mr.Baggins, Gandalf and thirteen dwarves searched and found a trolls’ treasure: swords of every sizes and types, gold, knives…The hobbit took a special sword made from elves then they brought up their ponies and continued the adventure.

Chapter 3-a short rest

They didn’t sing or tell stories that day. One morning they forded a river at a wide shallow place full of the noise of stones and foam. Bagging asked Gandalf where they were and he said that they were near the fair valley of Rivendell where Elrond lived. Morning passed, afternoon came and finally they reached Rivendell. They met some elves which brought them and their ponies to Elrond. Here all of them, the ponies as well, grew refreshed and strong, Their clothes were mended, their bags were filled with food and provisions. Elrond knew all about runes of every kind, and that day he looked at the swords they had taken from the trolls’ treasure. Elrond said that they were swords made by his family. Thorin also showed Elrond the map, and with the help of the moon, (that was shining in a broad silver crescent) he read the map. The elves loved maps, ruines and cunning handwriting; he said that the letters were moon-­‐letters (invented by the dwarves) that you could read only with a special moon. On the map there was written: “ Stand by the grey stone when the trush knocks, and the setting sun with the last light of Durin’s day (the first day of the dwarves’ New Year) will shine upon the key-­‐hole.” The next morning, thirteen dwarves and a hobbit started again their trip and they followed the path over the Misty Mountains to the land beyond.

Chapter 4-over hill and under hill

There were many paths that led up into those mountains, and many passed over them. Most of them were infested by evil things and danger. Long days after they had climbed out of the elves valley, they were still going up and up. Gandalf joined the group again and all the dwarves decided to sleep in a cave in the mountain. Before this, they inspected each corner of the cave and after this they went to sleep. Then came a wind and a rain, and a storm began. But that wasn’t only a storm, it was a battle between thunders. Bilbo was dreaming of a crack in the wall at the back of the cave got bigger and bigger and opened wider and wider…At that he woke up and found that part of his dream was real! Out jumped goblins, big goblins, lots of goblins! They captured Bilbo, his thirteen friends, ponies and baggage but not Gandalf. Goblins started singing and they brought all the prisoners in a big cavern to the Great Goblin. Thorin tried to convince the Great Goblin that they were there because they wanted to meet their families, and relatives; but the Great Goblin didn’t believe it because Thorin had Biter. It was the sword that killed hundreds of goblins. The king of goblins ordered to kill them, and in that moment Gandalf arrived, saved them and killed the Great Goblin. But Bilbo after all this mess, disappeared and lost his friends.

Chapter 5-riddles in the dark

When the hobbit opened his eyes, nobody near him was there. He decided to find a way to escape from there, but in vain. After some time, he felt for his pipe, so he smoked. The tunnel where he was seemed to have no end. There were a lot of passages and he just went only on and on, and down and down. His sword was shining and deep down here, Bilbo found Gollum, a small slimy creature, with two big pale eyes in his thin face. Gollum lived on a slimy island of rock in the middle of a lake. He was observing Bilbo. He took his boat and reached the hobbit. Bilbo understood that he always called himself my precious, he was hungry and angry. The two made a pact: if Gollum guessed three riddles, he could eat Bilbo; if Baggins guessed three riddles right, Gollum had to show the way to go away from there. Bilbo guessed the three riddles right, but Gollum in the third riddle “ What have I got in my pocket?” didn’t answer. Bilbo had a special ring, which he had found in the cavern, this ring had a special power: if you slipped it on your finger, you became invisible. That ring was the birthday present of Gollum, and after a while, the creature understood that Mr Baggins had it. Bilbo went away and wore the ring, and finally found the exit.

Chapter 6-out of the frying- pan into the fire

Bilbo had escaped the goblins and the terrible creature, but he had lost his cloack, food, hood, pony and his friends. Then he looked forward and could see that he had found the right path! He walked and suddenly he listened and heard some voices, it was Balin, Gandalf and all the dwarves! Bilbo reached them but before he slipped off the ring. They were all astonished, but anyway they started to walk, because goblins were looking for them, and they couldn’t loose time. So they ate something and they limped along now as fast as they were able down the pine forest in a slanting path… The moon was up and shining when all of a sudden they heard the howling of wolves! Bilbo and the others climbed up on trees and Dori helped the hobbit. For a time they were safe. Wolves arrived and they sat in a great circle; in the middle there was a great grey wolf. He spoke with Gandalf with the language of Wargs. The reason of their pursuit was the death of the Great Goblin. They started to sing in order to taunt them. Gandalf climbed up on the top of his tree and at that moment the Lord of the Eagles arrived and saved the wizard and the others and carried them off.

Chapter 7-queer lodgings

The next morning Bilbo woke up with the early sun in his eyes. The eagles had brought them on a great rock. Then they took off their clothes and bathed in the river. When they had dried in the sun, they began to march. Gandalf decided to go to the home of Beorn. Beorn was a skin-­‐changer. He was a bear descended from the great and ancient bears of the mountains that lived there before giants came. Beorn lived in an oak-­‐wood house he kept hives and hives of great fierce bees and lived most on cream and honey. After a while, Gandalf found the house. The wizard and the hobbit pushed open the gate and went down towards the house. Near it there was a huge man with a thick black beard and hair, and great bare arms. So Gandalf began to tell their story. He engaged Beorn, and as the dwarves come in pairs; the story included more people. Beorn invited all the dwarves into his house, he helped them and gave them room and board. The following day Beorn came back, and he gave some ponies, food and others useful things to continue the trip. He told them that they had to take the ponies back, as soon as they had arrived at Mirkwood.

Chapter 8-flies and spiders

They continued their walk, helped by Beorn’s advice. They didn’t lose the path. The hobbit was always hungry and thirsty too, for they were extremely careful with their provisions. After four days from the enchanted stream they came to a part where most of the trees were beeches. They lost the path, but fortunately two days later, they found it again. One evening, giant spiders captured the dwarves in webs; so Bilbo, alone, with the help of the ring, his little sword (which he named Sting) and some rocks, saved his thirteen friends… They laid for some time, but very soon, they began to ask Bilbo questions. The story of the ring interested them a lot! Days passed, and another danger came: the elves! They imprisoned Thorin and the other dwarves in one of the inmost caves with strong wooden doors and left them.

Chapter 9-barrels out of bond

The day after the battle with the spiders, Bilbo and the dwarves made one last despairing efforts to find a way out before they died from hunger and thirst. They arrived at a big hall with pillars hewn out of the living stone, the Elvenking sat on a chair of cavern wood. On his head there was a crown of berries and red leaves, and in his hand he held a staff of oak. The prisoners were brought before him, and the king started to ask Thorin why they were in his forest. Then the king ordered to put them in different cellars and to give food and drink. Bilbo in the meanwhile was trying to save them. He found all their cellars, also Thorin. At last after many difficulties, he managed to find the place when no one was about, and to have a word with the chief dwarf. Bilbo and Thorin made an excellent plan. Mr Baggins stole the key from a guard and saved his friends. First he unlocked Balin’s door then all the others. All together they passed through a door and reached a room where there were barrels. Bilbo went in one of them and escaped.

Chapter 10-a warm welcome

The day grew lighter and warmer. Bilbo and his friends reached Lake-­‐Town, a town populated by elves. Then they went to meet the Master of Lake town, who gave them ponies, room and board. Now they were all doctored and housed and fed and pampered in the highest fashion. Thorin received a large house, boats and rowers. Thorin and his companions stayed there for three days. At the end of a fortnight, Thorin began to think of departure. So he spoke to the Master and his cpuncillors and said that soon he and his company had to go on towards the Mountain. And the next day, all the dwarves and the hobbit left.

Chapter 11-on the doorstep

In two days they were right up the Long Lake and passed out into the River Running, and here they could see all the Lonely Mountain. At the end of the third day, some miles up the river, they drew in to the left or western bank and disembarked. They packed and rested with their ponies. They made their first camp on the western side of the great southern spur, which ended in a height called Ravenhill. Bilbo, Balin, Fili and Kili went to explore the area, and they discovered that the dragon Smaug was still alive. Thorin and all the company succeeded in opening a special door, made by dwarves, that took inside the Mountain.

Chapter 12-inside information

For a long time the dwarves stood in the dark before the door. Then Bilbo slipped on his ring and entered with Balin in the Mountain. It was almost dark, but rising from the near side of the rocky floor there was a great glow. The glow of Smaug! There he laid, a fast red-­‐golden dragon, fast asleep on countless piles of precious things, gold, gems, jewels, silver… Behind him there were helms, axes, swords… While Bilbo and the dwarves cowered just inside the passage, Smaug ate all their ponies. Bilbo tried to talk with the dragon, but he didn’t tell his name. Smaug after that, flew away and for some days Mr Baggins and his companions didn’t see him.

Chapter 13-not at home

The dwarves and the hobbit sat in the darkness and utter silence fell about them. Little they ate and little they spoke. They were trapped inside the Mountain, so they went to explore it, and they found the Arkenstone and the Heart of the Mountain. Oin had a small pine-­‐torch alight in his hand, and Gloin with a bundle of others under his arm. They even found the great chamber of Thror (Thorin’s grandfather).

Chapter 14-fire and water

Before long, they could see him as a spark of fire rushing towards them and growing ever huger and brighter. Bard, who was a descendant of the ruler of Dale, saw Smaug and decided to cut all the bridges. Bard used his arrows against the dragon, but in vain. Finally, Bard used his last arrow to fire into the spot under Smaug’s wing, and killed the dragon. The dragon fell on Lake-­‐Town and completed the work of destruction. Only five days after Smaug’s death, the elves came upon the shores and looked on the ruins of the town. Their welcome was good, as may be expected, and the men and their Master were ready to make some bargain for the future in return for the Elvenking’s aid. With the women and the children, the old and the unfit, and the Master began the planning of a new town, larger and fairer even than before.

Chapter 15-the gathering of the clouds

All the people acclaimed Bard. A bird informed Bilbo and the dwarves of Smaug’s death, and they rejoiced; but they also discovered that the elves were marching toward them. So the company retreated to the mountain and fortified it by building a formidable wall at the main gate. Bard informed Thorin and his friends that he killed Smaug and that Lake Town had been destroyed. The raven council’s peace decided to share the gold, but Thorin was adamant that the treasure was of the dwarves. The delegation requested that Thorin had to give one twelfth of Smaug’s treasure to Bard, as he killed the dragon, but Thorin refused and declared the mountain besieged.

Chapter 16-a thief in the night

Thorin was searching for the Arkenstone, that Bilbo had hidden in a bundle. Bilbo wanted to share the treasure and he decided that he had to convince Thorin. With the help of the ring, he went into the camp to visit Bard and the Elvenking. Bilbo showed and gave them the Arkenstone and told Bard and the Elvenking that he wanted use that stone in order to prevent a war and convince Thorin. They asked him to stay in the camp for his safety, but Bilbo decided to return to the mountain. Before this, Mr Baggins met Gandalf who had just arrived from his other affairs and he spoke a bit about their adventure. Then, Bilbo went away toward the mountain and he went to sleep.

Chapter 17-the cloud burst

In the morning, Bard returned with two messengers in order to persuade Thorin to accept a pact. Thorin refused again, so Bard revealed the Arkenstone, Thorin was astonished. Even better when Bilbo said that he was the one who gave Bard that stone. One of the two messengers was Gandalf, who commanded Thorin to let Bilbo speak. Thorin angrily offered to pay a fourteenth part of the treasure to regain the stone. But Thorin hoped that his family, who was marching toward them, could steal the magic stone by force. The night came and another danger was coming: an army of goblins and Wargs who intended to take the treasure for themselves. So the battle of five armies began. In the meanwhile, Bilbo stayed on the mountain watching the battle. Goblins and wolves were winning, when, Bilbo, with the help of his ring saw the great eagles flying toward the mountain. Unfortunately, a stone hit the hobbit’s head and he fainted.

Chapter 18-the return journey

When Bilbo woke up, the battle was finished and the dwarves had won. Bilbo took off the ring and went to the camp, where Gandalf was waiting for him. Unfortunately, Thorin was dying and Bilbo came toward him. Thorin understood his mistakes and asked to Bilbo to forgive all the words that he had said about the hobbit. Mr Baggins also discovered that Fili and Kili were killed trying to defend Thorin; but all the other dwarves were alive. Finally the dwarves were in peace with the elves and the lake men. Gandalf told Bilbo that the eagles helped win the battle, and that goblins were all death…Thorin was buried with the Arkenstone and Dain was elected the new king under the Mountain. Gandalf and Bilbo returned home with part of the treasure. They had some other adventures, and they went to visit the Elven king in Mirkwood and Beorn. They stayed with Beorn fore some months, then, at the outset of spring they left.

Chapter 19-the last stage

After a year, the wizard and the hobbit, reached Rivendell. There, Gandalf and Elrond spoke about many things: The Necromancer, The White Council of Wizards… Bilbo understood the reason why Gandalf left the company near Mirkwood. Gandalf had to participate in the the council of wizards to drive the Necromancer out of the forest… After a week, Mr Baggins and his companion, left Rivendell and finally, they reached Hobbiton and Bilbo’s house. His house was a disaster, and it was also on sale. Bilbo was never respected like before he left Hobbiton. Nobody believed in Bilbo’s stories, and he never spoke about the story of the ring with anybody. Fortunately, Gandalf and Balin often visited the hobbit. Bilbo didn’t care about it because he had his pipe, his house and all the comforts that he had never seen for many and many years to come!

Comment

I like this book. I love the way by which Tolkien tells and describes facts. My favourite character is Bilbo. I really admire his courage and his force although his height. Thanks to his intelligence, astuteness, and his abilities; he solved a lot of dangerous situations in a brilliant way. I like also the sense of union and solidarity between the dwarves, who welcomed Bilbo (more or less) immediately. I have never read the trilogy of The Hobbit, I just only saw the films; which are good, but anyway I prefer this book!

(c) Agnese Lorenzetto

The Hobbit by John R.R. Tolkien – Agnese Lorenzetto